Training and Developement

Training: It is process of imparting specific job related skills and behaviour. For E.g. Customer Service Training

Development: It is an effort to develop overall personal growth of the employee. It is future oriented.

Education: It involves the presentation of material by the faculty to students who are learning about the subject matter.

Learning: It is a process of acquiring skill and knowledge through study, experience or teaching

Importance of Training:

  • It helps the new recruit to perform the tasks & responsibilities
  • It helps the existing employees to acquire new skills thus increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level.
  • It helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.
  • Bridges the gap between the required competency & current competency
  • It helps in increasing the productivity of the employees
  • It helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations.
  • It helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture & build a positive perception and feeling about the organization. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.
  • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

Types of Training: Basically there are two types of training:

  1. A) Soft Skills
  • Behavioral Training
  • Communication Training
  • Personality Development
  • Time Management
  • Leadership Training
  • Creativity Training
  • Diversity Training
  1. B) Technical/Functional Skills
  • Customer Service Training
  • Product Training
  • Cross Functional Training

Stages in Training : Training Process & steps:

  1. Identify Training Needs
  2. Develop/Design the training module

III. Prepare Training Calendar

  1. Cost Analysis
  2. Impart the training
  3. Measure the effectiveness

A – Analyse Training Needs
D – Design the training
D – Develop the training
I – Implement the training
E – Evaluate the effectiveness of the training

TNA (Training need analysis)

  • Documentation within the organisation ( E.g appraisal docs, reports)
  • Observation (Customer Service)
  • Surveys (Customer Satisfaction/ Mystery Audits/ Client Feedback)
  • Interviews (With the supervisors)
  • Suggestion box
  • Meetings
  • HARD INDICATORS – Sales, Customer Satisfaction, Production, Quality- defects, Accidents at work
  • SOFT INDICATORS – Job Satisfaction, Stress, Attrition

Designing the Training

  • The objective of the training
  • The major things to keep in mind are:
  • Time Allocated i.e duration of the training
  • Facilities available at the Venue
  • Location of the training
  • Budget allocated for the training
  • Feedback procedure

The other factors to be considered while designing the training are:

The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. Not only this the style preference of trainer & level of competence of trainer also matters while designing a training programme

  • The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.
  • Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
  • Trainees’ learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.
  • Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.
  • Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Training implementation

  • The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
  • Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant.
  • Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by:

o Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense moments

o Encouraging informal conversation

o Remembering their first name

o Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another

o Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions

o Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed

o Getting to class before the arrival of learners

o Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time

o Using familiar examples

o Handling problematic situations

Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run.

The following information needs to be included:

  • Kinds of training activities
  • Schedule
  • Setting group norms
  • Housekeeping arrangements
  • Flow of the program

Training Evaluation

  • Observation
  • Questionnaire
  • Random questions during the training
  • On the job performance after the training
  • Written tests after completion of each module
  • Most valuable – business outcome
  • Least valuable – reactions

Return on Investment of Training Evaluation by Jack Phillps
• Unit of improvement (Increase in sales, decrease in complaints)
• Reduction in defects (Values of each item reduced)
• Change in performance data
• Annual amount of change
• Annual amount of improvement

Kirk Patrick Model of Training Evaluation – 4 levels
i. Reaction
ii. Learning
iii. Behaviour
iv. Results

Recent trends in training in India

Influence of e-Learning: Almost all major companies are using some form of online learning to train their employees. Unlike past where they used to focus more on mandatory trainings or highly focused trainings that address their pressing business problems /challenges, organizations are now investing more and more in personal development programs to increase employee productivity.

M-Learning: Today’s managers work more from their homes and off shore rather than from their business desk. So the organizations are moving towards M-Learning to ensure that their mobile workforce learn while they are on the move.

Adaptive Learning: Companies may want to consider breaking traditional learning methods by introducing aspects of adaptive learning, it is a methodology that breaks traditional models and allows employees to learn at their own pace.

Training through Smaller Chunks of Information: Organizations are now using technology to provide information in smaller chunks that can help learner to get access only to what they want and not to everything they have .This meets their business objective of teaching and does not become heavy on the learner’s pocket. This foresees more demand for craft training.

Social Networking: Social media can also be utilized to train or assess skills. The concerned participant or the facilitator can put up a question for a peer group, which can be answered by any one. Once it becomes a discussion-thread, the comments start attracting different and intelligent viewpoints.

Move towards measurement: In the past, it was common to dismiss the benefits of soft skills training as “intangible and immeasurable, but necessary”. This has moved to “Mandatory investment whose return must be measured”. The pressure to prove the benefits of training is increasing.

Preparing for upward mobility: Customized training in team management, coaching and mentoring, participation in long term leadership programs etc. are becoming a critical tool to develop the next line of leaders. Conventional MDPs continue to play a strong role here.

Increased use of training partnerships and outsourcing training : The need of specialized knowledge, access to best practices and cost savings leads to the approach to the external training vendors/suppliers such Consultants, academicians have become popular yet the key decision is how much to outsource.


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