Perception

PERCEPTION
It is a process where individuals select, organize & interpret their sensory stimulation into meaningful information.

Perceptual Organisation: It is a process by which employee’s group environment stimuli into recognizable pattern.
ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE: The study of people’s perceptions of fairness in organisations
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY:
The way that we perceive others and ourselves is based on both OUR unique characteristics and our membership in various groups.

ATTRIBUTION:
It is process where an individual tries to find out the causes behind others behaviour
KELLEYS THEORY OF CASUAL ATTRIBUTION
Here we explain why people behave as they do!!!

It is believed that an individual’s action is caused by internal or external factors, which is based on 3 types of Information.
Consensus: degree to which other people behave in the same manner
Consistency: degree to which same person behaves similar in different times/situation
Distinctiveness: degree to which same person behaves different in different situations
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION

  • Perceivers Characteristic: (Age, attitude, values, beliefs, personality, Experience)
  • Perceive’s/Targets Characteristics: (Nature, Size, Location, Sound, Motion, Distance)
  • Situational Factors: (Time, Work & Social Settings)

FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR:
The error takes place when the importance of external factors are UNDERESTIMATED and the importance of internal factors are OVERESTIMATED.
E.g.: Supervisor assuming the cause of high rate of accident is employee carelessness (internal) ignoring the possibility of the old equipment, which are in poor condition (external).
SELF-SERVICING BIAS:
Here individuals attribute success to internal factors & blame failures to external factors.

SELECTIVE PERCEPTION:
When people tend to see only a few qualities and judge the person completely

HALO EFFECT:
Judging an individual only on one particular trait/characteristics

STEREOTYPING:
When people believe that all members of a specific group will have common characteristics.

SIMILAR TO ME EFFECT/PROJECTION:
When people find similar qualities in other individuals, they tend to favour them.

CONTRAST EFFECTS/RECENCY:
Most recent information dominates perception

EXPECTANCY ERRORS:
If our prior expectations have a bias perception

PYGMALION EFFECT:
People holding a high expectation of another tend to improve that individual performance
GOLEM EFFECT:
If an individual’s belief is negative
PERSON SENSITIVITY BIAS:
The tendency for people to give too little credit to others when things are going poorly and too much credit when things are going well.

REBOUND EFFECT:
The tendency to think about something when you try intentionally not to think about it

KNOW YOURSELF (JOHARI WINDOW) – JOSEPH LUFT & HARRY INGHAM

It helps people to understand their mental instability – 56 Adjectives

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