Organisational Change

Organisational Change
The term ―change refers to any alteration which occurs in the overall work environment of an organisation

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Forces of change

External forces

  • Technology
  • Marketing conditions
  • Social changes
  • Political forces

Internal forces

  • Changes in managerial personnel
  • Changes in operative personnel
  • Deficiencies in existing structure
  • Culture (changing the values & goals of the organisation)
  • Structure (altering authority relations, coordination mechanisms, job redesign)
  • Technology (modifying how work is processed and methods & equipment used)

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  • Communication
  • Training
  • Employee Involvement
  • Stress Management
  • Negotiation
  • Coercion

Conditions for diffusing change

  • Successful pilot study
  • Favorable publicity
  • Top management support
  • Labour union involvement
  • Diffusion strategy described well
  • Pilot program people moved around

Change Agents
Anyone who possesses enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the change effort

–Help develop a vision
–Communicate the vision
–Act consistently with the vision
–Build commitment to the vision

Forms of Resistance to Change

  • Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions
  • Loss of employee loyalty and motivation,
  • Increased errors or mistakes
  • Increased absenteeism

Overcoming Resistance to Change
Education and Communication
–This tactic assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication.
–Prior to making a change, those opposed can be brought into the decision process.
Facilitation and Support
–The provision of various efforts to facilitate adjustment.
–Exchange something of value for a lessening of resistance.
Manipulation and Cooperation
–Twisting and distorting facts to make them appear more attractive.
–The application of direct threats or force upon resisters.


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