Motivation

MOTIVATION
It is a set of forces that makes an individual to behave in a certain way towards attaining/ achieving a goal

KEY ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION

  • Intensity: How hard a person tries
  • Direction: Which path/where is a person going ahead
  • Persistence: How long a person tries

IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION

  • If we can identify which stage/which category of motivation does an employee fall into, it will help the employer to chalk out the respective ways to motivate & retain them

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

  • Physiological Needs – Food, Cloth, Shelter, Sex
  • Safety Needs – Physical Safety, Economic Safety, Freedom from threats
  • Social Needs – Love & Affection, Group Membership, Relationship
  • Esteem Needs – Status, Achievement, Responsibility, Prestige
  • Self-Actualization – Personal Growth & fulfillment, opportunities for innovation & creativity

ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY

  • Existence Needs: Basis Needs (food, cloth & Shelter)
  • Related Needs: Social Needs (Relationship, Love & Affection and Group Membership
  • Growth Needs: Personal Growth & fulfillment, opportunities for innovation & creativity

MC CLELLANDS’S NEEDS THEORY

  • Need for Achievement: Strive to Succeed
  • Need for Power: Seek Influence, Attention & recognition
  • Need for Affiliation: Relationship, Love & Affection and Group Membership

HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
(HYGIENE & MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS)

  • Hygiene Factors CANNOT MOTIVATE but ELIMINATE DISSATISFACTION
  • If motivational factors are not there, the effect is neutral, but if present then it will result into motivation
  • Hygiene Factors: Salary, Company Policies, Working Environment and Job Security
  • Motivational Factors: Job Enrichment, Career Growth and Recognition

Douglas Mc GREGOR’S THEORY X & THEORY Y
Theory X: Employees work as little as possible, lack ambition, dislike responsibility, resistant to change. So they need to be controlled, pressurized & bribed.

Theory Y: Employees are willing to work; they are creative & self-directed. Hence the management must arrange conditions & methods of operation so that employees can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts towards org objectives.

Theory Z: Long term employment, collective responsibility, collective decision-making, slow evaluation & promotion, concern for total people including their family

ADAMS’S EQUITY THEORY: How fairly employees are treated & rewarded at work

VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY: Effort + Reward + Performance

GOAL SETTING THEORY: Setting a goal for an employee helps him/her to achieve the goals faster since the employee gets a direction to focus his attention & channelize all resources towards the goal.
MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE: A rating scale to measure job satisfaction survey.

HONEY MOON EFFECT: The tendency for people to enjoy high level of satisfaction on new jobs after they quit their previous job in which they were dissatisfied.

HANGOVER EFFECT: The level of satisfaction drops over a period of time in the same job.

3 types ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT:

  • Continuance Commitment: continue working in an org since cant afford to leave
  • Affective Commitment: continue working in an org since you agree with it & desire to remain
  • Normative Commitment: continue working in an org since you face pressure from others to remain

 

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