It is a set of forces that makes an individual to behave in a certain way towards attaining/ achieving a goal
KEY ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION
- Intensity: How hard a person tries
- Direction: Which path/where is a person going ahead
- Persistence: How long a person tries
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
- If we can identify which stage/which category of motivation does an employee fall into, it will help the employer to chalk out the respective ways to motivate & retain them
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
- Physiological Needs – Food, Cloth, Shelter, Sex
- Safety Needs – Physical Safety, Economic Safety, Freedom from threats
- Social Needs – Love & Affection, Group Membership, Relationship
- Esteem Needs – Status, Achievement, Responsibility, Prestige
- Self-Actualization – Personal Growth & fulfillment, opportunities for innovation & creativity
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
- Existence Needs: Basis Needs (food, cloth & Shelter)
- Related Needs: Social Needs (Relationship, Love & Affection and Group Membership
- Growth Needs: Personal Growth & fulfillment, opportunities for innovation & creativity
MC CLELLANDS’S NEEDS THEORY
- Need for Achievement: Strive to Succeed
- Need for Power: Seek Influence, Attention & recognition
- Need for Affiliation: Relationship, Love & Affection and Group Membership
HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
(HYGIENE & MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS)
- Hygiene Factors CANNOT MOTIVATE but ELIMINATE DISSATISFACTION
- If motivational factors are not there, the effect is neutral, but if present then it will result into motivation
- Hygiene Factors: Salary, Company Policies, Working Environment and Job Security
- Motivational Factors: Job Enrichment, Career Growth and Recognition
Douglas Mc GREGOR’S THEORY X & THEORY Y
Theory X: Employees work as little as possible, lack ambition, dislike responsibility, resistant to change. So they need to be controlled, pressurized & bribed.
Theory Y: Employees are willing to work; they are creative & self-directed. Hence the management must arrange conditions & methods of operation so that employees can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts towards org objectives.
Theory Z: Long term employment, collective responsibility, collective decision-making, slow evaluation & promotion, concern for total people including their family
ADAMS’S EQUITY THEORY: How fairly employees are treated & rewarded at work
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY: Effort + Reward + Performance
GOAL SETTING THEORY: Setting a goal for an employee helps him/her to achieve the goals faster since the employee gets a direction to focus his attention & channelize all resources towards the goal.
MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE: A rating scale to measure job satisfaction survey.
HONEY MOON EFFECT: The tendency for people to enjoy high level of satisfaction on new jobs after they quit their previous job in which they were dissatisfied.
HANGOVER EFFECT: The level of satisfaction drops over a period of time in the same job.
3 types ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT:
- Continuance Commitment: continue working in an org since cant afford to leave
- Affective Commitment: continue working in an org since you agree with it & desire to remain
- Normative Commitment: continue working in an org since you face pressure from others to remain