Group Dynamics

Any collection of individuals who have mutually dependant relationships & share a common goal (2 or more people/ they see themselves as members/free interaction)

TEAM: A small number of people with complimentary skills ( mutually accountable/committed to common goal)
Groups versus Teams

  • All teams are groups
  • Some groups are just people assembled together
  • Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (e.g., group of employees enjoying lunch together)

Reasons for group formation

  • Personal characteristics(beliefs, attitudes, values, age, sex, hobbies)
  • Interests and goals
  • Opportunity for interaction
  • Influence power

ob 1
Why do we join groups?

  • Satisfy social needs
  • Source approval
  • Knowledge
  • Goal attainment and task performance
  • Social identity


  • Informal: Natural formation in work environment in response to the need for social contact
  • Interest Group: who have a mutual interest eg: working mothers
  • Friendship Group: who have common characteristics eg: marital status, sports
  • Reference Group: any group with whom an individual identifies for the purpose of forming opinions or making decisions
  • Formal: Deliberately created to perform a specific task Eg: R/d lab, mgmt team
  • Standing Task Group: consists of a supervisor who exercises formal authority over subordinates
  • Task Group: a temporary formal group that is created to solve specific problem
  • Open: constant change of members
  • Closed: members are stable
  • In: the groups to which we belong
  • Out: the groups to which we don’t belong

FORMING: (Awareness)
Lot of uncertainty, focus on understanding the goal, work out procedures for performing the task, decides on structure, leadership

STORMING: (Conflict)
Mixture of expressions, conflicts regarding priorities of goals, responsibilities of each member

Group Cohesiveness, share info, shows acceptance, compromising decisions

PERFORMING: (Productivity)
Group is fully operational, high productivity & helps each other

Group disbandon after the task, fulfillment of task performance, feeling of sadness at the loss of friendship

Tuck man’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development 

ob 1












ob 1















  • Beginning of Group Discussions (First half): Groups makes plan but accomplishes little.
  • Half to deadline: Group makes changes
  • End (Second half): Group makes the final changes & reaches the deadline


GROUP COHESIVENESS: It is degree to which the members are attached to and motivated to remain the part of the group

  • Increasing the frequency of interaction
  • Threat from the third party
  • Shared Goals, Attitudes & values



  • Small Team size (Max 12)/ specific goal/ have proper leadership
  • Each team should 3 types of skills (technical/interpersonal/problem solving & decision making)


  • Interacting groups
  • Brainstorming
  • Nominal Group techniques: small groups of individuals systematically present & discuss their ideas before privately voting their preferred solutions.
  • Electronic Meeting
  • Stepladder Technique: Adding new members to a group one at a time and requiring each to present his/her ideas independently to a group that already has discussed the problem at hand.

Step 1: identify problem
Step 2: define the objectives
Step 3: develop alternatives
Step 4: Choose best solution
Step 5: Implement solution
Step 6: Evaluate decision
People use either of these 4 decision styles.

  1. Directive,
  2. Analytical,
  3. Conceptual
  4. Behavioral

Decisions are made in a automatic, intuitive fashion. People will adapt a course of action that will best fit their individual principles, current goals & plans for future.

Group Decision Making 

ob 1













Group Structure

The pattern of inter-relationships between the individuals within the group
It is the guidelines of group behaviour that make a group functioning orderly
4 aspects of Group Structure

  • Roles: parts played by group members
  • Norms: rules and expectations
  • Status: prestige of group membership
  • Cohesiveness: sense of belonging

Roles in a Group

  • Initiator,
  • Opinion Givers,
  • Energizers,
  • Harmonizers,
  • Compromisers,
  • Encouragers,
  • Blockers,
  • Recognition Seekers,
  • Dominators,
  • Avoiders

Norms – Generally agreed on informal rules that guide group member’s behaviour.
These are set of beliefs, feelings & attitudes commonly shared by group members

PRESCRIPTIVE NORMS: Expectations within the group regarding what is supposed to be done

PROSCRIPTIVE NORMS: Expectations within the group regarding behaviors which members are NOT supposed to engage

ETHNOCENTRISM: A bias toward one’s own subgroup and against other sub groups.

ETHNO RELATIVISTIC THINKING: Taking the perspective of another group and understanding how they see the world.

SNOWBALL EFFECT: The tendency for people to share informal information with others with whom they come into contact.

GRAPEVINE: An organization’s informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship

FRAMING: The tendency for people to make different decisions based on how the problem is presented to them
PIPE DREAMS: Types of rumor that expresses people’s wishes

SAY-DO MATRIX: A way of differentiating systematically with respect to consistencies and inconsistencies in what people say and what people do.

HURIER MODEL: Listening has 6 components (Hearing, Understanding, Remembering, Interpreting, Evaluating, Responding)

GATE KEEPERS: People responsible for controlling the flow of information to others to keep them from becoming overloaded

BROWN BAG MEETINGS: Informal get-togethers over meals in which people discuss what’s going on the company

HYPER VIGILANCE  The state in which an individual frantically searches for quick solutions to problems & goes from one idea to another out of a sense of desperation

SOCIAL LOAFING (Ringlemann Effect)
People may not tend to work as hard in groups as they would individually do because their contribution is less noticeable in groups hence they like to see others carry their workload.

RISKY SHIFTS: Entire group taking a risk is of high risk


POLARISATION: Fear of loosing the group membership

GROUPTHINK: Coming under a group pressure and accepting the decision


One thought on “Group Dynamics

  1. Good day I am so glad I found your weblog, I really found you
    by accident, while I was looking on Yahoo for something else, Regardless
    I am here now and would just like to say kudos for a remarkable
    post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read through
    it all at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added your
    RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the great work.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s